Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common killer among men in Western countries. Targeting androgen receptor (AR) signaling by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the current therapeutic regime for patients newly diagnosed with metastatic PCa. However, most patients relapse and become resistant to ADT, leading to metastatic castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) and eventually death. Several proposed mechanisms have been proposed for CRPC; however, the exact mechanism through which CRPC develops is still unclear. One possible pathway is that the AR remains active in CRPC cases. Therefore, understanding AR signaling networks as primary PCa changes into metastatic CRPC is key to developing future biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for PCa and CRPC. In the current review, we focused on three novel biomarkers (ZBTB46, SPDEF, and ETV6) that were demonstrated to play critical roles in CRPC progression, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR TKI) drug resistance, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for patients treated with ADT or AR inhibition. In addition, we summarize how these potential biomarkers can be used in the clinic for diagnosis and as therapeutic targets of PCa.
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