CD34+-selected peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) may not only reduce contaminated tumor cells but also compromise immunologic reconstitution and increase incidence of infections after transplantation. We analyzed the incidence of virus reactivation in CD34+-selected PBPCs autologous transplantation. From December 2001 to December 2004, ten high-risk aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients were enrolled in a program of high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous CD34+-selected PBPCs support. Viral screening studies, including clinical symptoms, physical examinations, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid diagnosis of fluorescent antibody stain for herpes-simplex virus (HSV), and viral culture from blood, fluid or tissue were performed weekly during the first 3 months and then monthly for 1 year. Two of four patients (50%) who were HBV carriers developed HBV reactivation. The other two HBV carriers who received prophylactic lamivudine therapy did not develop HBV reactivation. Two patients (20%) developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and three patients (30%) developed HSV infection in total ten serum-positive patients. The possibility of virus reactivation might increase in NHL patients undergoing autologous CD34+-selected PBPC transplantation. Administering prophylactic antivirus therapy and closely following patient's clinical viral complications should be considered.
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