Bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membranes (PM) have been demonstrated to be a sensitive photoelectric transducer for microbial detection. To efficiently prepare versatile BR-based immunosensors with protein A as antibody captures, a large, high-coverage, and uniformly oriented PM monolayer was fabricated on an electrode as an effective foundation for protein A conjugation through bis-NHS esters, by first affinity-coating biotinylated PM on an aminated surface using a complex of oxidized avidin and graphene oxide as the planar linker and then washing the coating with a shear flow. Three different polyclonal antibodies, each against Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus mutans, respectively, were individually, effectively and readily adsorbed on the protein A coated electrodes, leading to selective and sensitive quantitative detection of their respective target cells in a single step without any labeling. A single-cell detection limit was achieved for the former two cells. AFM, photocurrent, and Raman analyses all displayed each fabricated layer as well as the captured bacteria, with AFM particularly revealing the formation of a massive continuous PM monolayer on aminated mica. The facile cell-membrane monolayer fabrication and membrane surface conjugation techniques disclosed in this study may be widely applied to the preparation of different biomembrane-based biosensors.
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