Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have emerged as the preferred choice for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The establishment of a therapeutic range to minimize bleeding and thrombosis is important for personalized treatment of NOACs. The importance of dried blood spots (DBSs) has increased in medical care. An efficient and effective DBS analytical method could facilitate the concentration management of NOACs. The postcolumn infused internal standard (PCI-IS) method was applied to estimate spot volume and quantify dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban concentrations on DBS cards. The extraction solvent contented 0.1% formic acid and 70% ACN with a successive extraction procedure. Paired DBS and plasma samples from patients undergoing NOAC therapy (n = 269) were used to calculate conversion factors. [13C6]-Rivaroxaban was selected as the PCI-IS. The quantification accuracy for the three NOACs was within 88.9-104.3%. The RSDs of the repeatability and intermediate precision were below 10%. The obtained conversion factors of DBS to plasma concentrations of dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban were 1.81, 1.59, and 1.31, respectively. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the % differences between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were within a bias of ±20%. The result showed that PCI-IS was an accurate and efficient LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously estimate blood volume and NOAC concentrations on DBS cards. The stability results revealed that the DBS sampling strategy could improve compound stability. The developed method offers a new strategy for the therapeutic drug monitoring of NOACs and may improve the safe use of these drugs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry