Endometriosis is a common disease, but ureteral involvement is rare. The symptoms and signs of ureteral endometriosis mimic those of ureteral malignancy. This case report describes a woman who presented with chronic back pain for 5 years. Imaging studies showed a right small contracted kidney with hydronephrosis and a bladder tumor. Endometriosis of the right lower ureter was ultimately diagnosed. The patient was healthy without recurrence during follow-up. It is difficult to differentiate between ureteral endometriosis and malignancy; in fact, renal loss may occur before diagnosis. Ureteral endometriosis should be considered for women with ureteral obstruction manifesting as chronic backache.
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