Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a high prevalence of AF, and uremic toxins are an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with CKD. Uremic toxins can produce pro-fibrotic, pro-hypertrophic, and pro-inflammatory effects on cardiac tissues and enhance oxidative stress or neurohormonal phenomena of cardiovascular injury, which are recognized as arrhythmogenic factors of AF. This article reviews the clinical, molecular, and electrophysiological data of uremic toxins in CKD considered to induce AF through multiple mechanisms on structural and electrical remodeling of the cardiovascular system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine