We report a 45-year-old woman of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with thoracic empyema that was unusually infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) concomitant with Nocardia asteroides. After a combined treatment of cotrimoxazole, clarithromycin and anti-tuberculosis drugs with a short-term of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), the patient recovered from the critical illness. On the basis of the results in this case, we recommend a thorough survey of the probably concomitant infections of MTB and NTM in an immunocompromised patient with a known N. asteroid infection. In addition, an adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may have beneficial effect in the control of infections in an SLE patient.
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