To explore valuable endophytic fungus from Formosan Lauraceous plants as natural medicinal products, the fungus, Diaporthe caulivora isolated from leaves of Neolitsea daibuensis, was investigated. Through a thorough investigation of the ethanolic extract of the solid fermentation of D. caulivora 09F0132, six undescribed alkyne-geranylcyclohexenetriols, caulivotrioloxins A–F, one undescribed trichopyrone, diapopyrone, two undescribed sesquiterpenes, caulibysins A-B, one compound firstly isolated from the natural source, 3-O-desmethyl phomentrioloxin, and eight known compounds have been successfully identified. The absolute configuration of caulibysin A was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and those of (3R,8S)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(1-hydroxyethyl)phthalide and (3S,8S)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-(1-hydroxyethyl)phthalide were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Among the isolated compounds, caulivotrioloxin A concentration-dependently decreased the cellular melanin contents and tyrosinase activities in mouse melanoma B16–F10 cells, suggesting the anti-melanogenic potentials. The anti-melanogenic effects of caulivotrioloxin A involved the decrease in the protein expressions of melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2. Taken together, these results suggested that the isolates from D. caulivora could be served as natural melanogenesis inhibitors for cosmeceutical applications.
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