Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal cancer. Existing therapies do not have significant efficacy for GBM patients. Previous studies have shown that the collagen family is involved in the regulation of the extracellular environment of cancer cells, and these conditions could become an important factor for effective treatment. Therefore, we screened various collagen types and observed that the type V collagen α1 chain (COL5A1) gene plays a pivotal role in GBM. We further examined whether the overexpression of COL5A1 is common in mesenchymal subtypes and is related to the survival rate of GBM patients through several in silico cohorts. In addition, our cohort also showed a consistent trend in COL5A1 protein levels. Most importantly, we validated the cell mobility, metastatic ability and actin polymerization status caused by COL5A1 with two-way models. Based on these results, we established a transcriptomics dataset based on COL5A1. Moreover, PPRC1, GK and ESM1 were predicted by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) to be transcription factors or to participate downstream. We investigated the involvement of COL5A1 in extracellular remodeling and the regulation of actin filaments in the metastasis of GBM. Our results indicate that the COL5A1−PPRC1−ESM1 axis may represent a novel therapeutic target in GBM.
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