Background: No large-scale, head-to-head, phase III, randomized, controlled trial with an adequate sample size has investigated the effect of concurrent low-dose (LD) or high-dose (HD) cisplatin with radiotherapy on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Thus, we conducted a propensity-score-matched, nationwide, population-based cohort study in Taiwan to investigate the outcomes of LD-concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or HD-CCRT with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with advanced NPC. Methods: In this study, patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their chemotherapy regimen: HD-CCRT and LD-CCRT groups. Results: We enrolled 1968 patients (328 and 1640 in the LD-CCRT and HD-CCRT groups, respectively) who had received CCRT with IMRT. According to both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.75 (0.54-1.06, P = .103) was derived for the HD-CCRT group. Conclusion: LD-CCRT or HD-CCRT with IMRT can be a standard treatment that can prolong the survival of patients with advanced NPC.
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