We report the effectiveness of low-concentration n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol-tungsten mixture (10-15%) in the management of patients with aggressive or recurrent complex cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulae (CSDAVF). We treated five patients with complex CSDAVF with a low concentration of an NBCA-Lipiodol-tungsten mixture after catheterisation of the feeding arteries arising from the external carotid artery. Three had a recurrent CSDAVF after transarterial particulate embolisation. Three refused transvenous treatment or could not be treated in this way; two patients had also feeding dural branches of the internal carotid artery. All patients had complete resolution of symptoms and signs within a month of the procedure. No definite neurological complication was found during follow-up ranging from 12 to 36 months. Transarterial embolisation with low-concentration cyanoacrylate appears to be an effective alternative management of aggressive or recurrent CSDAVF.
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