Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. Prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in women of childbearing age in Osun State, Nigeria are unknown. This study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of childbearing age in Osun State, Nigeria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2019 to December 2019 in childbearing age women. Sera of 415 women aged 18–49 years randomly selected were collected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to collect socio-demographic and risk factors data. The study revealed that the overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 76.63%, which comprised 6.02% positivity for anti-T. gondii IgM (25/415), 44.10% for IgG (183/415) and 26.51% for IgG plus IgM (110/415). Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (6.02%) suggested recent infections. Women residing in rural communities and women of Islam religion showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (p < 0.05). Residence location and women who are of Islam religion are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of childbearing age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.
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