Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammation that is also involved in the development of neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) would worsen neointimal formation by balloon injury. Sixteen rats were randomly allocated into the following four groups: group 1, balloon angioplasty alone; group 2, TSD prior to angioplasty; group 3, angioplasty before TSD; and group 4, TSD before and after angioplasty. Total sleep deprivation was induced by the disc-over-water method, and balloon angioplasty was performed in the carotid artery. Histopathological analysis and assay of cytokines were applied to evaluate the effects of TSD in this study. Total sleep deprivation significantly increased the ratio of postinjury neointima-to-media area in groups 2, 3 and 4 (all P <0.01) compared with group 1. Additionally, in all groups with TSD administration the serum level of interleukin 10 was also markedly decreased on day 3 after angioplasty injury (P <0.05 or P <0.01). Our findings suggest that perioperative TSD can significantly augment neointimal hyperplasia of the carotid artery in rats, which may be partly caused by a TSD-induced effect in suppressing the serum level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10.
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