In this study, we proposed a three-dimensional (3D) printed porous (termed as 3DPP) scaffold composed of bioceramic (beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)) and thermoreversible biopolymer (pluronic F-127 (PF127)) that may provide bone tissue ingrowth and loading support for bone defect treatment. The investigated scaffolds were printed in three different ranges of pore sizes for comparison (3DPP-1: 150–200 µm, 3DPP-2: 250–300 µm, and 3DPP-3: 300–350 µm). The material properties and biocompatibility of the 3DPP scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, contact angle goniometry, compression testing, and cell viability assay. In addition, micro-computed tomography was applied to investigate bone regeneration behavior of the 3DPP scaffolds in the mini-pig model. Analytical results showed that the 3DPP scaffolds exhibited well-defined porosity, excellent microstructural interconnectivity, and acceptable wettability (θ < 90°). Among all groups, the 3DPP-1 possessed a significantly highest compressive force 273 ± 20.8 Kgf (* p < 0.05). In vitro experiment results also revealed good cell viability and cell attachment behavior in all 3DPP scaffolds. Furthermore, the 3DPP-3 scaffold showed a significantly higher percentage of bone formation volume than the 3DPP-1 scaffold at week 8 (* p < 0.05) and week 12 (* p < 0.05). Hence, the 3DPP scaffold composed of β-TCP and F-127 is a promising candidate to promote bone tissue ingrowth into the porous scaffold with decent biocompatibility. This scaffold particularly fabricated with a pore size of around 350 µm (i.e., 3DPP-3 scaffold) can provide proper loading support and promote bone regeneration in bone defects when applied in dental and orthopedic fields.
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