Background Evidence for the beneficial effect of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus is limited, and the clinical outcomes of this treatment strategy are largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in a series of children with febrile refractory status epilepticus. Methods We retrospectively reviewed consecutive pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between January 2000 and December 2013. The clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results Thirty-five patients (23 boys; age range: 1–18 years) were enrolled, of whom 28 (80%) developed super-refractory status epilepticus. All of the patients received the continuous administration of intravenous antiepileptic drugs for febrile refractory status epilepticus, and 26 (74.3%) achieved therapeutic burst-suppression coma. All of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support, and 26 (74.3%) received inotropic agents. Eight (22.9%) patients died within 1 month. The neurologically functional outcomes at 6 months were good in six (27.3%) of the 22 survivors, of whom two returned to clinical baseline. The patients with therapeutic burst-suppression coma were significantly associated with hemodynamic support than the patients with electrographic seizures control (p = 0.03), and had a trend of higher 1-month mortality rate, worse 6 months outcomes, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Conclusions Our results suggest that therapeutic burst-suppression coma to treat febrile refractory status epilepticus may lead to an increased risk of hemodynamic instability and a trend of worse outcomes.
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