Periodontitis is a common oral disease mainly caused by bacterial infection and inflammation of the gingiva. In the prevention or treatment of periodontitis, anti-bacterial agents are used to inhibit pathogen growth, despite increasing levels of bacterial resistance. Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (SM) seed oil has proven anti-bacterial and anti-inflammation properties. However, the possibility of using this plant to prevent or treat periodontitis has not been reported previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SM oil on experimental periodontitis in rats by using micro-CT and microbiota analysis. The distance between cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and alveolar bone crest (ABC) on the sagittal micro-CT slide showed that total bone loss (TBL) was significantly lower in CEJ-ABC distances between SM oil and SM oil-free groups on Day 14. Histology data also showed less alveolar bone resorption, a result consistent result with micro-CT imaging. The microbiota analyzed at phylum and class levels were compared between the SM oil and SM oil-free groups on Day 7 and Day 14. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacterium. Firmicutes in box plot analysis was significantly less in the SM oil group than in the SM oil-free group on Day 7. At the class level, Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridia, and Erysipelotrichia were the dominant bacteria. The bacteria composition proportion of Bacilli, Clostridiay, and Erysipelotrichia could be seen in the SM oil group significantly less than in t SM oil-free group on Day 7. Overall, the present results show that topical application of SM oil can reduce bone resorption and change bacteria composition in the ligature-induced periodontitis model. According to these results, it is reasonable to suggest SM oil as a potential material for preventing oral disease.