Background: Motherhood is a critical situation characterized by role conflicts. These conflicts between the roles of mother, worker, and wife are the norm in the postpartum period and may jeopardize a mother's well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between postpartum adaptation and depression among new mothers who live in northern Taiwan. Material and Methods: A total of 186 first pregnancy mothers were recruited via convenience sampling methods and they completed mailed questionnaires between 1 week and 2 months after giving birth. Structured questionnaires including Demographic Inventory Scale, Postpartum Self-Evaluation Questionnaire, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used. Results: Ninety-four (50.5%) women exhibited depressive symptoms (EPDS > 10) and 73 (39.2%) women needed to consult the doctor (EPDS > 12). The risk factors for postpartum depression symptoms included unplanned birth, low socioeconomic status, and part-time employment. The correlation between women's different aspects of postpartum adaptation and depression ranged was from low to medium. The best predictors of postpartum depression were confidence in their own competence of motherhood tasks, satisfaction with life circumstances, and partner participating in child care. These three subsets explained 44.8% of the total variance. Conclusion: This study shows that healthcare providers who work with primiparas during the first 2 months after giving birth should pay more attention to postpartum depression, keeping in mind associated risk factors. A new mother's confidence in her own abilities as a new mother may be particularly important in determining the likelihood of postpartum depression.
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