Higher prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with schizophrenia are getting more and more attention. Uric acid (UA) has been frequently reported to be associated with MetS in the general population. Sex difference in this relationship is inconsistent. As a selective antioxidant, UA has also been found to be reduced in patients with schizophrenia, and this effect may be prominent in men. With the inconsistent presentations, higher rate of MetS but possible lower UA concentrations, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship by sexes between serum UA concentrations and prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A total of 637 patients, 342 male and 295 female, were enrolled from 36 psychiatric rehabilitation institutions. Cross-sectional anthropometrical data, biochemical analysis, and serum UA were measured. Serum UA concentrations were divided into quartiles by sexes. Modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asians were used as diagnosis of MetS. After adjustment, higher UA concentrations are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high blood pressure in men and with hypertriglyceridemia in women. Significantly higher odds ratios for MetS in the UA third (4.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-12.1) and fourth quartiles (9.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.90-29.8) compared with the lowest quartile were found in men but not in women after adjustment. These results suggest that lower UA concentrations in male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder are associated with lower risk of MetS.
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