Background: The relationship between food insecurity and the experience of sleep disturbance has received little attention among researchers, although food insecurity is associated with poor physical and mental health globally. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between food security status and sleep disturbance among adults 20–64 years old. Methods: The study’s population-based sample included 20,212 Indonesian adults who participated in the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS5) in 2014. Dietary intake data, gathered using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), were used to assess the food security status. Sleep disturbance was assessed using the 10-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questionnaire. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to test the study hypothesis. Results: A higher likelihood of experiencing sleep disturbance was recorded in people aged older than 56 years (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.17–2.72, p = 0.007), people with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.77–4.61, p < 0.001), and food-insecure people (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70, p = 0.036). A lower likelihood of experiencing sleep disturbance was recorded in people with low educational attainment (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.30–0.57, p < 0.001). Sleep disturbance was dependent on the food consumption groups and food security status among men (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Sleep disturbance may be affected by the food-insecure status of adults, and later, may lead to serious health outcomes.
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