Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of complicated root canals in permanent mandibular central incisors (PMCIs) and its correlation with the presence of a distolingual root (DLR) in permanent mandibular first molars (PMFMs) using cone-beam computed tomographic imaging in a Taiwanese population. Methods: A total of 400 patients (800 pairs of PMCIs and PMFMs) were qualified for further analysis. The prevalence of DLRs in PMFMs along with root canal configurations of PMCIs were assessed at subject and tooth levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the root canal configurations of PMCIs with the existence of DLRs in PMFMs. Results: The prevalence of PMFMs with DLRs and complicated root canal configurations in PMCIs was 23.0% and 15.6%, respectively. A significant difference in age (<50 years vs ≥50 years) was found for complicated root canal configurations in PMCIs. The most prevalent root canal system in PMCIs was Vertucci type I (84.4%) followed by type III (13.5%). A positive correlation between the presence of DLRs in PMFMs and complicated root canal configurations in PMCIs was noted. After adjusting for categoric variables including sex, age, and side, the odds ratios for the occurrence of complicated root canal configurations of PMCIs in the unilateral DLR group and the bilateral DLR group compared with the non-DLR group were 2.13 and 2.53, respectively. Conclusions: The concurrent appearance of DLRs in PMFMs and complicated root canal morphology in PMCIs is prominent in Taiwanese individuals.
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