Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the potential effects of the systemically delivered combination of calcium supplementation and cholecalciferol and of the locally applied biphasic calcium alloplast on the surgically produced alveolar sockets at the early healing stage in a dog model. Materials and methods: The mandibular pre-molars of nine Beagle dogs were extracted first. Three months later, four standardized sockets with a 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm deep cylinder were created bilaterally at healed extraction sites. The sockets on one side were grafted with biphasic calcium phosphate alloplast, whereas the defects on the other side were left un-grafted. The dogs were then randomly divided into two groups; five dogs received oral calcium and cholecalciferol combination (Vit.D/Ca) and were assigned to the test group (Vit.D/Ca Group). The other four dogs without Vit.D/Ca supplement were distributed to the control group (Non-Vit.D/Ca Group). The bone density (Density) and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at prepared sites were measured 4 weeks later. The drawn bone cores were examined by a histomorphometric analysis for measurement of new bone formation (NBF). The amount of vertical ridge resorption (VRR) was evaluated. Results: The Vit.D/Ca-treated subjects revealed significantly more NBF (P <0.05), higher bone density (P <0.05) and significantly less vertical ridge reduction (P <0.05) in the healing sockets than those without Vit.D/Ca treatment. The non-grafted sockets demonstrated significantly more NBF (P <0.05), higher bone density (P <0.05), better ISQ value (P <0.05) and more vertical ridge reduction (P <0.05) than those in the grafted sockets. There was no significant difference between the serum data determined before and 4 weeks after experiment in Vit.D/Ca Group or Non-Vit.D/Ca Group. However, the changed value (post-op vs. pre-op) between the two groups was significant in the serum level of phosphate and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the examined calcium phosphate alloplast may perform a function in alveolar ridge preservation while reducing the potential of NBF potential in the healing extraction socket. Also, the combination of calcium supplementation and cholecalciferol may have systemic effects on accelerating bone regeneration.
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