A member of a new subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), is highly expressed on endothelial cells and plays an important role in inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism used by PAR2 to induce IL-8 production and thereby mediate cell adhesion. We observed that PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) significantly increase peripheral blood mononuclear cells adhere to endothelial cells. Both PAR2-AP and the endogenous PAR2 activator trypsin caused concentration- and time-dependent increase in endothelial IL-8 production, and this effect was concentration dependency and selectively attenuated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. Western blotting analysis showed that PAR2-AP induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and its upstream protein kinase MAPK kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6) in a time-dependent manner. Using reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PAR2-AP was found to cause an increase in IL-8 mRNA expression and its transcription factor activating transcription factor 2, respectively,. As expected, these signals were suppressed by SB203580 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, introduction of dominant-negative vectors targeting p38 MAPK, MKK3, and MKK6 abolished PAR2-AP-mediated IL-8 production and cell adhesion function. In conclusion, PAR2 via p38 MAPK signaling regulates IL-8 production and thereby mediates cell adhesion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Emergency Medicine