Increasing reports on epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical studies suggest that dysfunction of the inflammatory reaction results in chronic illnesses such as cancer, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, neurological disorders, liver diseases, and renal disorders. Chronic inflammation might progress if injurious agent persists; however, more typically than not, the response is chronic from the start. Distinct to most changes in acute inflammation, chronic inflammation is characterized by the infiltration of damaged tissue by mononuclear cells like macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, in addition to tissue destruction and attempts to repair. Phagocytes are the key players in the chronic inflammatory response. However, the important drawback is the activation of pathological phagocytes, which might result from continued tissue damage and lead to harmful diseases. The longer the inflammation persists, the greater the chance for the establishment of human diseases. The aim of this review was to focus on advances in the understanding of chronic inflammation and to summarize the impact and involvement of inflammatory agents in certain human diseases.
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