Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) alters common risk factors of nasopharyngeal carriage by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children. Methods: From July 2005 through December 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study investigating risk factors associated with pneumococcal carriage in children. Parents of participating children completed questionnaires including whether or not the children received PCV7 vaccination. Results: Among 9705 children, 20.2% of them received at least 1 dose of the PCV7 vaccine. Multivariate logistic regression models identified older age, having 1 sibling in a family, history of acute otitis media and household exposure to smoking as independent risk factors for pneumococcal carriage in the unvaccinated group, but not associated with pneumococcal carriage in the vaccinated group. The number of siblings ≥2 in a family, history of upper respiratory tract infection and child-care attendance were strong factors associated with pneumococcal carriage in children, regardless of vaccination. In vaccinated group, breast-feeding was associated with increased nonvaccine type pneumococcal carriage, mainly in children with upper respiratory tract infection. Conclusions: PCV7 decreased the association between pneumococcal carriage and older age, 1 sibling in a family, history of acute otitis media and household exposure to smoking, but increased the association between pneumococcal carriage and breast-feeding.
ASJC Scopus subject areas