Objectives: The association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. This study explored long-term hard endpoints (ie, myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke) and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients with chronic HBV infection in Taiwan from 2000 to 2013. Design: This study was retrospective, longitudinal and propensity score-matched. Setting Nationwide claims data for the period 2000-2013 were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants: The study included 40 162 diabetic patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV cohort) and 40 162 propensity score-matched diabetic patients without HBV infection (control cohort). Chronic HBV infection was identified based on three or more outpatient clinic visits or one hospital admission with a diagnosis of HBV infection. Main outcome measures: Primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, including myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke), heart failure and all-cause mortality. Results: During the median follow-up period of 5.3±3.4 years, the HBV cohort had significantly lower risks of myocardial infarction (adjusted HR (aHR)=0.49; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.56), ischaemic stroke (aHR=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.67), heart failure (aHR=0.50; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.59) and all-cause mortality (aHR=0.72; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.75) compared with the control cohort. The impact of HBV infection on the sequential risk of MACE was greater in patients with fewer diabetic complications. Conclusions: Chronic HBV infection was associated with decreased risk of MACE, heart failure and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism underlying these findings.
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