BACKGROUND: Over recent years, new evolution in guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) contributes to clinical benefits in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The additional medical expenditure may be a concern due to the current financial constraint. This study aimed to investigate the medical costs and clinical effectiveness of contemporary GDMT in recently hospitalized HFrEF patients. METHODS: Acutely decompensated hospitalized HFrEF patients from two multicenter cohorts of different periods were retrospectively analyzed. A propensity score matching was performed to adjust the baseline characteristics. Annual medication costs, risks of mortality, and recurrent heart failure hospitalizations (HFH) were compared. RESULTS: Following 1:2 propensity score matching, there were 426 patients from the 2017-2018 cohort using sacubitril/valsartan, while 852 patients from 2013 to 2014 did not use so at discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar, whereas the sacubitril/valsartan users were more likely to receive beta-blockers, ivabradine and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists at discharge (79.3% vs 60.4%, 23.2% vs 0%, and 64.1% vs 49.8%, p < 0.001). The 2017-2018 cohort produced more medication costs by 1277 United States dollar (USD) per person per year, while it resulted in lower rates of HFH and all-cause mortality (10.3 vs 20.3 and 48.8 vs 79.9 per 100 person-year, p < 0.001). Costs of preventing a mortality event and a HFH event with contemporary treatments were 15 758 USD (95% confidence interval [CI] 10 436-29 244) and 5317 USD (95% CI 3388-10 098), respectively. CONCLUSION: The higher adoption of GDMT was associated with greater medical expenses but better clinical outcomes in recently decompensated HFrEF patients.