Although the fruit extract of Dolichandrone genus was shown to inhibit spermatogenesis, the reproductive toxicity of Dolichandrone serrulata flowers (DSFs) is not documented. Recent study aimed to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of DSF on male reproductive system. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of DSF extract were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu's, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The terpenoid components were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. Adult male rats were treated orally with DSF (100, 300 or 600 mg/kg) for 48 days. Histopathology of testis and epididymis was observed. Sperm concentration, viability, acrosome status and morphology were also examined. Expressions of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), tyrosine-phosphorylated (TyrPho) proteins, androgen receptor (AR) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein in testis were investigated. Results showed that DSF contained phenolic compounds and terpenoids (phytoandrogens; rengyolone and cleroindicin B). No reproductive histopathology was observed in DSF-treated rats. Although DSF decreased the serum testosterone level, the sperm qualities were not affected. Particularly, sperm concentration of DSF-treated animals was significantly increased. DSF changed the testicular TyrPho proteins but the expression of AR, StAR or Hsp70 was not altered. In conclusion, DSF possesses antioxidant capacity with no toxicity on male reproductive system.
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