Nucleotide-binding domain-like receptors protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are associated with neuroinflammation and multiple NLRP3 genes regulate NLRP3 expression. Our study aimed to investigate the association of NLRP3 polymorphisms with developmental delay in preschool children. We also explored whether NLRP3 polymorphisms modified the effects of total urinary arsenic and blood cadmium and lead to developmental delays. A total of 178 children with developmental delays and 88 healthy children were analyzed for urinary arsenic concentrations and red blood cell lead and cadmium concentrations. We examined the genotypes of fifteen common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NLRP3. We observed that levels of total urinary arsenic and blood lead were significantly associated with developmental delay. The NLRP3rs10754555 CG versus CC/GG, NLRP3rs12048215 AG versus AA/GG, and NLRP3rs12137901 TC/TT versus CC genotype showed a lower odds of developmental delay, with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.38 (0.19–0.75), 0.52 (0.27–0.99), and 0.33 (0.12–0.90), respectively. Children with the NLRP3rs10754555 CC/GG genotype and high blood lead levels had a significant multiplicative interaction with developmental delay [OR (95% CI) = 9.74 (3.59–26.45)]. This study found evidence that suggested the joint effects of NLRP3rs10754555 CC/GG genotype and high blood lead levels on developmental delays.
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