The self is a multifaceted phenomenon that integrates information and experience across multiple time scales. How temporal integration on the psychological level of the self is related to temporal integration on the neuronal level remains unclear. To investigate temporal integration on the psychological level, we modified a well-established self-matching paradigm by inserting temporal delays. On the neuronal level, we indexed temporal integration in resting-state EEG by two related measures of scale-free dynamics, the power law exponent and autocorrelation window. We hypothesized that the previously established self-prioritization effect, measured as decreased response times or increased accuracy for self-related stimuli, would change with the insertion of different temporal delays between the paired stimuli, and that these changes would be related to temporal integration on the neuronal level. We found a significant self-prioritization effect on accuracy in all conditions with delays, indicating stronger temporal integration of self-related stimuli. Further, we observed a relationship between temporal integration on psychological and neuronal levels: higher degrees of neuronal integration, that is, higher power-law exponent and longer autocorrelation window, during resting-state EEG were related to a stronger increase in the self-prioritization effect across longer temporal delays. We conclude that temporal integration on the neuronal level serves as a template for temporal integration of the self on the psychological level. Temporal integration can thus be conceived as the “common currency” of neuronal and psychological levels of self.
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