Reduced scleral collagen accumulation has been found in the development of myopia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the type I collagen α-1 gene (COL1A1) may cause different susceptibilities to myopia. We conducted a case-control study to systematically examine COL1A1 as a candidate gene for high myopia. A case was defined as spherical refraction ≤-6 D and control ≥-1.5 D. The study comprised 471 cases and 623 controls, and ten tagging SNPs were genotyped. None of the SNPs reached the significant level of 0.05. Subset analysis on cases with a strong family history did not demonstrate significant results. We could not find an interaction between gene and near work. Exploratory analyses by changing the cutoff values to re-define cases and controls did not improve the results. Haplotype analysis did not yield significant association with myopia. This study failed to demonstrate COL1A1 as a significant risk factor for high myopia.
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