The present study investigates whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of increased levels of glucose induced synergistic cytotoxicity in primary cultured microglia. Significant cytotoxicity was only observed while the concentrations of LPS were increased to 10 μg/ml. D-glucose concentration-dependently (25-125 mM) generated cytotoxicity. Synergistic apoptosis of microglia was seen by LPS in the presence of increased levels of D-glucose. This synergistic cytotoxicity was attenuated by the use of superoxide dimutase and catalase, suggesting the involvement of oxidative free radicals. Collectively, the present results suggest that increased ambient levels of glucose rendered microglia vulnerable to LPS insults, and led to a synergistic apoptosis. The findings here may be important in certain patho-physiological implications in which hyperglycemia exacerbated the ambient functions contributed by microglia, and may provide new insight into a novel therapeutic intervention.
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