Syndecan-3 (SDC3) and Syndecan-4 (SDC4) are distributed throughout the nervous system (NS) and are favourable factors in motor neuron development. They are also essential for regulation of neurite outgrowth in the CNS. However, their roles in the reconstruction of the nodes of Ranvier after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are still unclear. Present study used an in vivo model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN) for 1–3 months. The recovery of neuromuscular function was evaluated by grooming test. Expression and co-localization of SDC3, SDC4, and Nav1.6 channel (Nav1.6) at regenerating axons were detected by proximity ligation assay and confocal microscopy after ESN. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was used for imaging ions distribution on tissue. Our data showed that the re-clustering of sodium and Nav1.6 at nodal regions of the regenerating nerve corresponded to the distribution of SDC3 after ESN. Furthermore, the re-establishment of sodium and Nav1.6 correlated with the recovery of muscle power 3 months after ESN. This study suggested syndecans may involve in stabilizing Nav1.6 and further modulate the distribution of sodium at nodal regions after remyelination. The efficiency of sodium re-clustering was improved by the assistance of anionic syndecan, resulting in a better functional repair of PNI.
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