Purpose: The impact of tramadol analgesic use before breast cancer diagnosis on survival in patients with chronic pain is unclear. Therefore, we designed a propensity score-matched populationbased cohort study to compare the breast cancer-related survival of patients with chronic pain who received long-term tramadol analgesic treatment with that of those who did not receive such treatment. Patients and Methods: We included patients with chronic pain and categorized them into two groups according to their analgesic use, comparing their breast cancer-related survival; patients with breast cancer and chronic pain who were prescribed ≥180 defined daily doses (DDDs) of tramadol analgesics per year >3 months before breast cancer diagnosis comprised the case group, and those who were prescribed non-tramadol analgesics before breast cancer diagnosis comprised the control group. Patients in both groups were matched at a ratio of 1:5. Results: The matching process yielded a final cohort of 624 patients (104 and 520 in the case and control groups, respectively) who were eligible for further analysis. According to both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause death in the case group compared with in the control group was 3.45 (95% confidence interval = 2.36–5.04; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Long-term tramadol analgesic use prior to breast cancer diagnosis might be associated with poor overall survival in patients with chronic pain compared with such patients that did not receive long-term tramadol analgesic treatment.
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