The microstructure and surface properties of the optimal nanostructured-gold (ONG) film were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and static contact angle evaluation in the present study. A three-dimensional model of human liver was reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate the thermomechanical performance of the ONG film by means of finite element model analysis. Moreover, a monopolar electrosurgical unit equipped with needle type uncoated stainless steel (U-SS) and ONG film coated stainless steel (ONG-SS) electrodes was used to investigate the thermal distribution in the liver of rats. Experimental results showed that the temperature decreased significantly when using the ONG-SS electrode. The ONG-SS electrode also created a relatively small thermal injury area and lateral thermal effect. Furthermore, thermography indicated that the ONG-SS electrode exhibited a significantly lower surgical temperature as compared with the U-SS electrode during electrosurgery process in rats. Therefore, it could be demonstrated that the ONG-SS electrode is a promising biomedical device for reducing excessive thermal injury and decreasing adherence tissue in electrosurgery.
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