There is much evidence indicating that human leukemic cells and monocytes/macrophages synthesize, and secrete, several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and participate in the degradation of extracellular matrix components in tissue lesions. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of andrographolide, extracted from the herb Andrographis paniculata, on human monocytic MMPs expression and activation. Andrographolide (1-50 μM) exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of MMP-9 activation, induced by either tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in THP-1 cells. In addition, andrographolide did not present an inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzymatic activity at a concentration of 50 μM. By contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that andrographolide partially affect TIMP-1 levels. Western blot analysis showed that both TNF-α, and LPS stimulators attenuated MMP-9 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we found that andrographolide suppressed expression of MMP-9 messenger RNA. Furthermore, we also found that andrographolide could significantly inhibit the degradation of inhibitor-κB-α (IκB-α) induced by TNF-α. We used electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter gene detection to show that andrographolide also markedly inhibited NF-κB signaling, anti-translocation and anti-activation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that andrographolide attenuates MMP-9 expression, and its main mechanism might involve the NF-κB signal pathway. These results provide new opportunities for the development of new anti-inflammatory and leukemic therapies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Molecular Medicine