Background: Consumption of sugar or artificially-sweetened beverages (SASBs) has been linked to albuminuria, decline in kidney function, and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the results are controversial. We therefore aim to evaluate the effects of sugar or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption on CKD risk. Methods: Original observational studies reporting relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between sugar or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and impaired renal function or CKD risk in adults were identified using a systematic search of PubMed and EMBASE from inception to 20 February, 2019. Random effects model was applied to derive summary RRs and 95% CIs. Linear and non-linear dose–response relationships were estimated using data from sugar or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption categories in each study. Results: The summary RR of CKD for high versus low sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was 1.30 (95% CI 0.88–1.94) according to six included studies with a total of 25,455 participants, while the pooled RR of CKD for high versus low artificially sweetened beverage consumption was 1.40 (95% CI 0.65–3.02) according to three studies with a total of 19,995 participants. For dose–response analysis, a significant, increased risk of CKD was observed with the sugar or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption above seven servings per week (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study found a positive association between consumption of sugar or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption and CKD, though it did not reach statistical significance. However, the dose–response results suggest that more than seven servings per week should be avoided. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
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