Agranulocytosis is an uncommon but serious complication of Graves' disease under thionamide therapy. In some patients removal of circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies by plasmapheresis is an effective adjunctive therapeutic option. In perioperative settings, however, plasmapheresis may cause excess bleeding intraoperatively due to coagulation factor depletion unless fresh frozen plasma (FFP) products are used in the replacement fluid mix. Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) in which only a small amount of albumin supplementation is used may be a potential alternative to conventional apheresis interventions where clotting factor depletion is problematic. We report a case of a patient with Graves' disease complicated with intravenous immunoglobulin responsive methimazole-induced agranulocytosis/hemophagocytosis who underwent successful preoperative DFPP treatment in preparation for thyriodectomy. In addition to conventional apheresis using FFP replacement, DFPP may offer an effective adjunct option in the management of hyperthyroid patients needing emergent surgical interventions.
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