Antiplatelet agents have considerable benefits in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases; however, these agents still have substantial limitations due to their severe side-effects. In this study, the antiplatelet activity of three newly synthesized saccharide based benzimidazole derivatives, M3BIM, Malto-BIM and Melibio-BIM, in collagen and thrombin-stimulated human platelets in vitro was examined. Among the compounds tested, only compound M3BIM exerted concentration (20-60 μM)-dependent inhibitory effects against collagen (1 μg/ml) and thrombin (0.01 U/ml)-induced washed human platelet aggregation. Moreover, at a concentration of 60 μM, M3BIM distinctly abolished collagen-induced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Additionally, this compound attenuated the collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47, a marker of the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, Malto-BIM and Melibio-BIM were not effective in this regard. Moreover, the toxic effects of these compounds were evaluated using zebrafish embryo toxicity (ZET) assay, and the results revealed that all three compounds had no comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 25-200 μM. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence for the inhibitory effects of M3BIM on collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro compared to other imidazole derivatives. The presence of 1-imidazolyl moiety at one end with a longer chain length (three sugar moieties) may be mainly responsible for the observed effects of M3BIM. These results suggest that compound M3BIM may be used as a potential candidate for the treatment of aberrant platelet activation-related diseases as it inhibits the activation of p47 and p38 MAPK, and reduces ATP release and Ca2+ mobilization.
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