Treatment for Rectal cancer changed after the induction of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, CCRT. Complete remission of the tumor leads to debate of the necessity of surgical intervention. We evaluate the treatment outcome to know if operation is beneficial to these patients. Patients received long course concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for advanced rectal cancer between 2004 and 2013 in Taiwan were enrolled. Total 2780 patients diagnosed advanced rectal cancer were enrolled. In these patients, 2578 received surgical intervention and 202 were in wait and see for complete remission tumor. Higher local recurrence rate was found with wait and see group (8.9% vs. 2.7%). Also, better overall survival, disease free survival and local recurrence free survival were seen with the surgical intervention group. Surgical intervention may be benefit for some misdiagnosed completed response to CCRT.
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