METHODS: In methodology, WJMSCs were treated with a 0.4-T SMF. The cell viability was tested using the MTT assay. For the osteogenic analysis, the alkaline phosphatase activity assay and alizarin red S staining were performed. The osteogenic-related gene expression of ALP, BMP-2, and Runx2 was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to analyze matrix vesicle secretion.
RESULTS: The cell viability showed no significant difference between the SMF-treated group and the sham-exposed cells. However, the SMF-treated group exhibited significantly more mineralized nodule formation and higher ALP activity than their control counterparts ( p < .05). The expressions of osteogenic-related markers, ALP, BMP-2, and Runx2, were also significantly higher in the SMF-treated WJMSCs. The scanning electron microscopy results showed much more matrix vesicle secretion in the SMF-treated cells than in the sham-treated cells. A mineralized sheath was noted in the SMF-treated cells, along with a sporadic accumulation of spherical mineralized deposits on the cell surface.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that 0.4-T SMF treatment enhances the osteogenesis of WJMSCs at the early-to-middle stage of osteogenic differentiation by increasing the matrix vesicle secretion and mineralization.
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