Background: Perimedullary spinal arteriovenous malformations or direct spinal arteriovenous fistulaes (AVFs) may be associated with other vascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous malformations, venous ectasis, and aneurysms, but rarely have been reported with intraspinal intradural tumors. Purpose: The authors present an interesting case of type IV-A spinal AVF concomitant with a cauda equina schwannoma. Study design: The diagnostic procedures and surgical outcome were described. Methods: The patient underwent surgery, the vessel feeding the AVFs was identified and cauterized, and the spinal tumor was removed. The fistula was small and located inside the tumor. The pathology revealed AVF and schwannoma, respectively. Results: After surgery, the patient's symptoms began to improve and subside. Two years after surgery, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed no vascular lesion and tumor in the spinal canal. Conclusions: The association of spinal AVFs and cauda equina schwannoma has not been reported previously in any literature. The patient presents the symptoms of myelopathy associated with a spinal vascular lesion; it has to be noted that a concomitant and related intradural spinal tumor may exist.
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