Purpose: The number of patients aged ≥ 90 years is increasing worldwide; however, the treatment guidelines for colorectal cancer in elderly patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with primary colorectal cancer aged ≥ 90 years. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 100 patients (aged ≥ 90 years) with primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Their demographic and clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes were assessed. Results: The patients who underwent tumor resections (n = 71) showed longer overall and cancer-specific survival than those who underwent non-operative treatments (n = 29) (median overall survival time: 23.92 months vs. 2.99 months, P < 0.0001). Age, body mass index, performance status, advanced cancer stage (stages 3 and 4), and treatment strategy were identified as risk factors, prognostic factors, and predictors of overall survival. No significant differences in the postoperative morbidity rate, in-hospital mortality rate, and survival time were found between the elective laparoscopic (n = 27) and elective open (n = 37) surgery subgroups. However, the in-hospital mortality rate was 6.25% (4/64) in the patients who underwent elective open surgeries and 42.9% (3/7) in those who underwent emergent open surgeries (p = 0.0179). Conclusions: In clinical practice, surgical treatment should not be denied to patients with primary colorectal cancer aged ≥ 90 years. However, the high complication and mortality rates for emergency surgeries act as a deterrent. Further studies to eliminate the bias between operative and non-operative groups may be needed to validate our results.
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