Background: The association between dyslipidemia and xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) remains controversial, and no definite evidence has indicated atherosclerosis risk in patients with XP. Objective: The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate the association of serum lipid profiles and risk of atherosclerotic diseases with XP. Methods: We systematically searched for the eligible comparative studies published before April 15, 2019, in the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library. A random-effects model was used to calculate the standard mean difference with 95% confidence interval for each pooled estimate. Results: The qualitative analyses included 15 case-control studies with 854 patients with XP. Compared with the controls, the patients with XP had significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins, significantly higher apolipoprotein B levels, and relatively lower apolipoprotein A1 levels, and the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly higher. Conclusion: Patients with XP had significantly higher serum levels of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins and bore significantly higher risk of atherosclerosis than the controls. Careful monitoring and targeted intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases is essential for these patients.
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