To analyze the association between smoking status (active smoking and exposure to Second-Hand Smoking (SHS)) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI with gout risk, a community-based case-control design was undertaken among 385 participants, including 304 healthy controls and 81 gout patients from seven community health services. Adjusted Odd Ratios (AORs) and 95% Confidence Interval (CIs) of gout for active smoking and SHS were 3.26 (95% CI = 1.07~9.90) and 4.67 (95% CI = 2.18~10.00) compared to non-smokers. Time-dependent manner of active smoking and SHS significantly increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 5.95 (1.41~25.03) and 10.12 (3.51~29.14). Dose-dependency of active smokers and SHS showed AORs and 95% CIs of 5.15 (1.28~20.63) and 4.37 (1.33~14.28). Smoking 20 cigarettes (one pack) per day for one year is equivalent to one pack-year. Active smoking >20 pack-year and SHS > 26.5 pack-year increased gout risk with AORs and 95% CIs of 7.18 (1.53~33.67) and 9.95 (3.64~27.22). Participants who smoked (active smoking and SHS) and with Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 24.9 kg/m2 synergistically increased gout risk, with an AOR of 9.65 and 95% CI of 3.25~28.65, compared to BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 and non-smoker. Smoking status (active smoking and SHS) and the synergistic effect of smoking status and BMI increased gout risk in Indonesia.
|期刊||International journal of environmental research and public health|
|出版狀態||已發佈 - 四月 2 2021|
ASJC Scopus subject areas