Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been implicated in cardiovascular disease and inflammation. This study examined the effects of ATF3 knockout (KO) on blood pressure, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and visceral adiposity in mice fed who did and did not consume a high-fructose diet. Male mice were divided into four groups (N = 15 for each group): the Con (control) group (wild-type mice fed a standard chow diet), Fru group (wild-type mice fed a high-fructose [60% fructose] diet), ATF3KO-Con group (ATF3 KO mice fed a standard chow diet), and ATF3KO-Fru group (ATF3 KO mice fed a high-fructose [60% fructose] diet). Experiments were conducted for 8 weeks. Our data demonstrated that ATF3 KO mice have lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels than do wild-type mice, and that high-fructose diets increase SBP levels in both wild-type and ATF3 KO mice. ATF3 KO in mice increased the serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, impaired endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, increased aorta wall thickness and lipid peroxide, and expanded visceral adiposity. These symptoms resembled those exhibited by the wild-type mice fed a high-fructose diet, which caused hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, endothelium-dependent aortic dysfunction, inflammation, aorta remodeling, and visceral adiposity. A high-fructose diet among ATF3 KO mice deteriorated metabolic parameters and inflammatory cytokines. The present results therefore suggest that ATF3 deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and ATF3 might have a therapeutic role in fructose-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, a rising of inflammatory cytokines, and metabolic syndrome.
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