Background: Accurate classification of diffuse gliomas, the most common tumors of the central nervous system in adults, is important for appropriate treatment. However, detection of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and chromosome1p/19q codeletion, biomarkers to classify gliomas, is time- A nd cost-intensive and diagnostic discordance remains an issue. Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing has emerged as a novel cancer prognostic marker, but its value for glioma classification remains largely unexplored. We aim to (1) unravel the relationship between RNA editing and IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion and (2) predict IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status using machine learning algorithms. Results: By characterizing genome-wide A-to-I RNA editing signatures of 638 gliomas, we found that tumors without IDH mutation exhibited higher total editing level compared with those carrying it (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p < 0.0001). When tumor grade was considered, however, only grade IV tumors without IDH mutation exhibited higher total editing level. According to 10-fold cross-validation, support vector machines (SVM) outperformed random forest and AdaBoost (DeLong test, p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of SVM in predicting IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion were 0.989 and 0.990, respectively. After performing feature selection, AUCs of SVM and AdaBoost in predicting IDH mutation were higher than that of random forest (0.985 and 0.983 vs. 0.977; DeLong test, p < 0.05), but AUCs of the three algorithms in predicting 1p/19q codeletion were similar (0.976-0.982). Furthermore, 67% of the six continuously misclassified samples by our 1p/19q codeletion prediction models were misclassifications in the original labelling after inspection of 1p/19q status and/or pathology report, highlighting the accuracy and clinical utility of our models. Conclusions: The study represents the first genome-wide analysis of glioma editome and identifies RNA editing as a novel prognostic biomarker for glioma. Our prediction models provide standardized, accurate, reproducible and objective classification of gliomas. Our models are not only useful in clinical decision-making, but also able to identify editing events that have the potential to serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in glioma management and treatment.
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MOESM1 of RNA editing-based classification of diffuse gliomas: predicting isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation and chromosome 1p/19q codeletion