© Article author(s) 2017. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate fracture risk and post-fracture outcomes in patients with and without liver cirrhosis (LC). Design Retrospective cohort study and nested fracture cohort study. Setting This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on: (1) 3941 patients aged 20 years and older newly diagnosed with LC between 2000 and 2003; (2) 688290 hospitalised fracture patients aged 20 years and older between 2006 and 2013. Primary and secondary outcome measures Followed-up events of fracture from 2000 to 2008 were noted from medical claims to evaluate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fracture associated with LC. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of adverse events after fracture were compared among patients with and without LC Results The incidences of fracture for people with and without LC were 29.1 and 17.2 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the adjusted HR of fracture was 1.83 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.01) for patients with LC. Previous LC was associated with risks of septicaemia (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.60 to 1.96), acute renal failure (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.99), and 30-day in-hospital mortality (OR 1.61, 95 %CI 1.37 to 1.89) after fracture. Conclusion LC was associated with higher risk of fracture; patients with LC in particular had more complications and 30-day in-hospital mortality after fracture. Fracture prevention and attention to post-fracture adverse events are needed for these susceptible populations.