Background: Oral verrucous hyperplasia is commonly observed in the oral cavity of betel quid chewers and is a potential malignant disorder. However, the prognostic factors and genetic alterations of oral verrucous hyperplasia are unclear. Methods: We calculate the survival rate and prognostic factors using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Copy number variations were analyzed using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Results: The 5-year disease-free and cancer-free survival rates of patients with oral verrucous hyperplasia were approximately 40% and 70%, respectively. Heavy betel quid chewing, advanced oral submucous fibrosis, and nonbuccal and nontongue lesions were risk factors for malignant transformation, whereas dysplasia did not affect outcomes. The gene amplification of CTTN, FOLR3, ORAOV1, PPFIA1, and RNF121 were associated with the poor prognosis of oral verrucous hyperplasia. Conclusion: Heavy betel quid chewing, advanced oral submucous fibrosis, and nonbuccal and nontongue lesions are high-risk factors of patients with oral verrucous hyperplasia. The 5-copy number variation-associated genes could be used for early diagnosis and predicting the prognosis.
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