Reports indicate the increasing prevalence of liver disorders in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Clinically, it has also been revealed that the existence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) enhances the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while T2DM exacerbates NAFLD to extremely severe forms of steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. This implies the coexistence and bidirectional nature of NAFLD and T2DM, which function synergistically to drive adverse consequences in clinical practice. For treatment of such comorbid state, though the existing practices such as lifestyle management, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and pharmaceuticals have offered somewhat relief, the debate continues about the optimal therapeutic impacts. Recent developments in the field of tissue engineering have led to a renewed interest in novel biomaterial alternatives such as stem cells. This might be attributable to their differentiation potential towards hepatic and pancreatic lineage. These cellular therapies could be further complemented by platelet-derived biomaterials, TCM formulations, or any specific drug. Based on these abovementioned approaches, we aimed to comprehensively analyze various preclinical and clinical studies from traditional to regenerative therapeutic approaches in managing concomitant NAFLD and T2DM.
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