Objective: The development of blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is desirable. In AD model mouse brain and neuronal cells, Abelson helper integration site-1 (AHI1) protein is reduced. AHI1 facilitates intracellular amyloid precursor protein (APP) translocation to inhibit amyloidogenic pathology of AD, and thus may be an AD biomarker. Methods: This study was conducted among 32 AD patients and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects. AHI1-related protein levels from initially collected serum samples in each group were screened using Western blotting. The protein concentrations of AHI1 and amyloid-β (Aβ), peptide(s) derived from APP, from all serum samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: In AD serum, AHI1 and a large truncated C-terminal APP fragment were significantly reduced. The average concentrations of serum AHI1 and Aβ in AD were significantly lower than those in HC. Notably, AHI1 concentration in HC serum was decreased in an age-dependent manner, while it was consistently low in AD serum and had no correlation with Aβ or mini-mental state examination score. The receiver operating characteristic analysis on all subjects demonstrated an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.7 for AHI1 on AD diagnosis, while the AUC increased to 0.82 on the subjects younger than 77 years old, suggesting a good diagnostic performance of serum AHI1 for AD especially at relatively young age. Conclusion: An early event of AHI1 reduction in the body of AD patients was observed. Serum AHI1 may be valuable for early diagnosis of AD.
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